Wenchang City is situated in the north eastern part of Hainan Province at a longitude between 19°20′and 20°10′North and a latitude between 110°28′and 111°03′East. To the south east and north lie the Hainan and Qiongzhou Straits respectively whilst the county is bordered on the west by Qiongshan Town and to the south west by Ding’an County and Qionghai City.
The outline of the whole city is approximately half-moon shaped with a north to south distance of 99 kilometres, an east to west distance of 65 kilometres and a total border circumference of 285 kilometres. Total land area is 2347.48 square kilometres or 7% of the provincial total. The city faces the vast sea areas to the north, east and south with a coastline running for 203.7 kilometres dotted with 40 large and small bays. Total maritime area is 2347.98 square kilometres or 3.52 million Chinese acres.
At the present time the city has 16 villages and townships, 290 village committees, 3291 rural villages plus 6 state owned farms and a forestry operation. The city’s political, economic, culture and communications centres lie on the banks of the river at a distance of 63 kilometres from the provincial capital Haikou.
Wenchang’s total population is currently 558,000 of which 110,000 live in the city’s political, economic, culture and communications centre plus a further 55,000 or so in towns and cities.
Industry and agriculture: In 2006 Wenchang’s industry produced output valued at 2.3 billion RMB, an increase of 14.9% over the previous year. The added value increase was 1.23 billion RMB, a 16.9% increase over the previous year. These figures include achievement of increased industrial total output of 1.15 billion RMB, an increase of 14.8% over the previous year’s figures. The city’s total output from farming, forestry, grazing and fishing reached 4.8 billion RMB, an increase of 14.1% over the previous year. Total value added from industry and agriculture was 3.08 billion RMB, a 14.1% increase over the previous year.
Finances and taxation: Wenchang City’s financial revenue continued to grow in 2006 with total receipts of 372 million RMB, a rise of 26.8% including urban fiscal income of 272 million RMB, an increase of 31.6% and a new record level.
Mainstay industries: The city’s five characteristic industries are tropical products industry, aquatic products, minerals, timber and the processing of Wenchang chicken.
Land resources: Wenchang City is classified as an area of hilly plains with the terrain sloping from the south west to north east. In the north east the terrain is flat with much of it classified as terraces whilst in the south west it is undulating and uneven and thus classified as hilly tableland. The city’s total land area is 2,403 square kilometres, accounting for 7% of the islands land and includes 1.62 million Chinese acres of pasture, 600,000 Chinese acres of tropical area,560,000 acres of pastureland, 640,000 Chinese acres of arable land, 40,000 Chinese acres covered by fresh water plus 410,000 Chinese acres of cleared but yet to be developed wasteland in towns and villages. The city has six types of diverse soil, namely that suitable for paddy fields, red brick clay, tidal sand, coastal salt marsh soil, coastal salt soil and coastal sandy soil. These in turn are divided into eleven subclasses, 41 subtypes and 107 soil types.
Tourism resources: Wenchang City offers a rich selection of tourism resources including the “First Peak of East Hainan”, “Odd but Handsome World Peak”, and the Tongu Mountain Ridge. There is also the Yunlong Bay natural underwater garden (made of coral), known as “China’s Great Barrier Reef”, the fantastically diverse Stone Park, the unique coastal scenery of Coconut Bay, the exquisite scenery of Gaolong Bay, the magical and enchanting Fengjia Bay with its waves, white sand and top quality water along with the warm waters of the Guanxin Hot Spring, the rare Maritime Forest Park which includes Yibamen Bay Mangrove Forest, the world renowned former residence of the Soong family, the Magnolia Lighthouse or “First Tower of Asia”, ancient Confucian temples and the Seven Zhou Islands which surpass even fairyland in their attractiveness.
Maritime resources: There are rich and plentiful maritime resources available in Wenchang City. The coastline extends 206.7 kilometres and there are tidal mudflats covering 8, 963 hectares. Of which 6,382 hectare are suitable for development with 4,000 hectares already exploited. Wenchang has administrative jurisdiction over 4600 square kilometres of maritime area of which 15,400 hectare are classified as 10 metre depth grade which are considered good locations for the development of aquaculture and marine farming. Along the coast there are a total of 36 large and small natural harbours with fertile areas rich in aquatic resources, there is the Seven Continent Ocean, Tonggu, the three fishing grounds of Qinglan. The fishing season is long and there are many aquatic products of every type. More than 800 species of fish are found along the coast including valuable grouper, Spanish mackerel, lobster, prawn, abalone, squid along with 40 other species.
In addition, eucheuma red algae grows all around the coral reefs of the shallow sea area. These reefs extend to 6,000 hectares and teem with algae and seaweed; every year the combined production of eucheuma and gelidiella is 250 tons.
Mineral resources: Wenchang City is amongst the towns and counties in Hainan that possess abundant mineral resources. These include iron, titanium, coal, crystal, sapphire, kaolin, quartz plus more than ten others. Only a dozen or so have large or medium ore bodies. In particular, the Longma quartz sand mine, Penglai aluminium ore mine and Puqian zircon and titanium ore mine are famed throughout China.
Transport: From the road network aspect, 15 tarred roads with a total length of 365 kilometres are now open to traffic. The Wenpeng link road is complete whilst the East Slope road, the east road to the new bridge, the Wencheng road to the new bridge, the Wencheng to Penglai road and the Longma to Wentian roads are more or less finished. In total there are seven tarred roads with an overall length of 307.5 kilometres. Solid progress is being made on construction of the “Rural Access Project” from Hushan to Jianshan, Longlou to Honghai, Changsa to Baitu and Dongjiao to Baoyu amongst others making a total of 36 rural roads stretching for 210 kilometres. The city has a road density of 0.88 kilometres per square kilometer ranking it amongst the highest in the province whilst the urban and rural traffic network has all the clesr prerequisites to improve.
Agricultural infrastructure: From the agricultural infrastructure construction aspect, reinforcement of the Zhubao and Hushan reservoirs are amongst 44 focal hydraulic engineering projects. The Wenjiao, Wenzhongyang, Dongediluyang, the eastern road water tank and the Duyang are complete and examples of general agricultural engineering projects. These are supporting piles forming the base of a solid economic development platform.
City and town building plan: From the municipal construction aspect, this is according to the principle of “Three Verticals, Thirteen Horizontals” for the construction of the urban road network and an unceasing increase in municipal building dynamism. Wendong Road, Macun Avenue, Wen Secong Road and Wen Third Road make up some of the 18 municipal roads now open to traffic. The urban area of Wenchang covers 13.7 square kilometres with beautiful green areas extending to 1.75 million square metres. The initial design form is that of an overseas Chinese town with educational buildings, a commerce district, seaside holiday area, high technology area, leisure and entertainment district and so on – a comparatively functionally complete city layout. The city's urbanization level has reached 41.6%, an increase of 1.3% over the previous year.
Electric power construction: From the electrical power transmission construction aspect, the 35 KV Qinglan stepping transformer plant line section, the newly built Shentian, the two 110KV transformers project at Dongpo, the two 35KV transformer substation projects at Fengpo and Longma, the East road to Guantang 220KV power line project and the East Road to Dongpo 110KV power line extension project are all complete. Electric power consumption has now reached 663 million KW, an increase of 20.9% over the previous year which ranks Wenchang third in the whole province. Optical fibre transmission lines now extend for 840 kilometres with power transmission line length of 3.2 million kilometres and communications pipelines reach 600 kilometres in length. There are more than 100 mobile phone base stations and 72 optical communication networks. 16 towns have broadband networks connected to the Internet for business whilst mobile and fixed line telephone services are widespread with a penetration rate of 20 mobile phones per 100 households and 15 fixed lines per hundred households, the highest figures in the whole of Hainan Province.